Weimar Germany: Promise and Tragedy PDF Ç Weimar

Weimar Germany: Promise and Tragedy [KINDLE] ✾ Weimar Germany: Promise and Tragedy By Eric D. Weitz – Natus-physiotherapy.co.uk En 1917 Alemania era un país derrotado ue afrontaba las duras compensaciones de guerra impuestas por el Tratado de Versalles la crisis económica mundial y la propia depresión de sus ciudadanos Weit En Promise and PDF/EPUB ¼ Alemania era un país derrotado ue afrontaba las duras compensaciones de guerra impuestas por el Tratado de Versalles la crisis económica mundial y la propia depresión de sus ciudadanos Weitz relata en forma de paseo por el Berlín de entreguerras estos altibajos políticos y económicos en un ambiente de efervescencia cultural aruitectos como Gropius escritores como Brecht o filósofos como Heidegger crearon durante esta época sus trabajos más importantes rodeados de una vanguardia Weimar Germany: PDF \ ue propugnaba la utopía o la refundación completa de la sociedad Esta vívida evocación de Weimar más pertinente ue nunca en la coyuntura económica y política actual narra al fin cómo una sociedad culta e informada pero humillada y confundida pudo dejarse atrapar por el populismo nazi y poner su destino en manos de Hitler.

10 thoughts on “Weimar Germany: Promise and Tragedy

  1. Murtaza Murtaza says:

    Weimar Germany is the haunting story of a liberal society that transformed into the most notorious fascist regime that the world had ever seen This book is about the politics of Weimar but also the culture and ideology of a society transitioning from the traditional world into modernity Like a lot of people I'm a bit concerned about the fate of liberalism Liberalism in Weimar simultaneously had shallow and deep roots The roots were deep in the sense that there were many profound liberal thinkers in Germany society and liberalism as a lived reality spread widely among the population At the same time it was an ill starred regime Weimar was born out of defeat and economic humiliation It never got past that stigma From the moment of its birth others were waiting to kill it and establish a virile regime in its place In the end conservatives allied with the radical right succeeded destroying Germany and much of the world in the processThis is history in its best form about every facet of a society moving from one stage of development to another Everyone should be interested in the fate of Weimar especially us today living through a phase of transition This book is well written and gives a wonderful tour of both the thoughts and lives of Weimar Germans Highly recommended

  2. Lewis Weinstein Lewis Weinstein says:

    This is an excellent overview of major themes in the Weimar years connecting some of the dots to the subseuent Nazi takeover 1n 1933 I read the last three chapters Here are some fascinating to me at least items that might appear in one way or another in my new novel CHOOSING HITLER The Threepenny Opera was the theatrical sensation of 1928 the depraved degenerate exploitative nature of capitalism everybody lies everybody cheats the police are indistinguishable from the criminals the Nazi's Volkischer Beobachter called Threepenny Opera a noxious cesspool that the police should simply sweep away in 1926 the Dutch physician Theodor Hendrik von Velde conducted a lecture tour of Germany had recently published 'Ideal Marriage' his book and lectures were wildly successful especially his explicit descriptions of sexual techniues the new German woman short hair slender athletic erotic provoked loathing commentary the notion that women could determine their own lives might decide not to marry and to have a variety of sex partners not all of them male was fundamentally terrifying to traditional Germans both men and women Germans danced as never before in hotels and cafes using radio phonograph as well as live bands dances were held in the late afternoon a startling innovation and in the evening when large dance halls were packed both Catholic and Protestant churches thundered against the sexual revolution citing a scandalous number of abortions rapid increase in venereal disease premarital sex as the new norm the unblemished beginning of marriage an exception the social order has weakened and shattered greatly endangering the protection and dignity of the female sex and threatening the honor and responsibility that defines the male sex all of the Weimar Republic's most dangerous antagonists came from the Right not the communists of the left the army Protestant Catholic churches state bureaucracy industry finance schools universities none of them were committed to democracy and Weimar's liberal agenda NOTE Weimar was forced on Germany by Versailles and never sat well this collection of establishment Right was never coordinated until the Nazis absorbed most of the radical Right violent paramilitary lower class in the early 1930s establishment conservatives pined for a return to an ordered authoritarian past and hungered for a powerful leader who could march Germany out of the morass of corruption and immorality the establishment elite was willing to accept the violence and hatreds of the Nazis in order to effectively combat the hated Weimar republic the middle class longing for order and stability trusted the elite including the churches and formed docilely behind them to collude with Hitler and the Nazis to overturn Weimar democracy the Catholic and Protestant churches made Nazis aceptable the language of the radical right including the Nazis had many affinities with the anti Weimar fulminations constantly emanating from the Protestant and Catholic churches these similarities made the Nazis acceptable in polite society Hitler's theme that Germany was engaged in an existential struggle against its Jewish Marxist enemies sounded much like the rhetoric that churchgoers heard regularly from their pulpits coming from all sides was the notion of a vast world conspiracy against Germany all of it the result of the Jew der Jude

  3. Christopher Saunders Christopher Saunders says:

    Eric D Weitz's Weimar Germany Promise and Tragedy offers a fascinating account of Germany's interwar experiment with democracy Popular histories freuently depict Weimar as a foredoomed Bohemian interlude between Prussian militarism and Nazi tyranny; Weitz's account does much to clarify and complicate that image He focuses intensely on Weimar's achievements its early leaders building a functional if extremely flawed democracy from the ashes of the Hohenzollern Empire allowing a degree of freedom universal suffrage and intellectual and artistic development Weitz's contrasts between Weimar's left or center left and right seem painfully familiar Social Democrats like Friedrich Ebert and Gustav Streseman concerned with making their new government work while conservatives cynically abuse the system in order to destroy it Weitz argues effectively that Hindenburg and his allies fatally undermined democracy long before Hitler assumed power Alongside the political ferment and economic turmoil play out German culture wars debates over democracy and censorship the role of women and religious minorities sexuality and art marked the era with passionate intensity Weitz presents this with deft precision vivid reconstructions particularly an engaging narrative chapter describing Berlin in the '20s and penetrating analysis Weimar was doomed he argued less by the weakness of the system than the actors bad faith operators on the Right Communist and fascist fanatics feeble centrists trying to reconcile the irreconcilable A vivid human portrait of an oft caricatured epoch

  4. Mikey B. Mikey B. says:

    This is a study of the Weimar era from different angles – political economic artistic and cultural The author describes Weimar society as free democratic and vibrant – but with an underbelly of hate Nobody liked it – from conservatives to communists And nobody wanted to support it – the government was loathed by most even though it offered considerable freedom – religious artistic Mr Weitz delves on many personalities like Thomas Mann Bertold Bretcht and Martin HeideggerWeimar may have lasted but was rocked by many political assassinations hyperinflation in the 1920’s and finally the Great Depression in 1929 proved its undoing As Mr Weitz points out a democracy – and Weimar was a real democracy – can be usurped from inner forces and replaced by another insidious force The Weimar politicians were for the most part mediocre addicted to maintaining a status uo and had uninspiring leadership – the Nazis were anything but this

  5. Sarah Zama Sarah Zama says:

    This is really a fantastic introduction to the Weimar Republic in all its aspect Personally I prefered the first part which covered the republic's social history The second half focuses on cultura aspects like literature films music analysing the single author's work rather than the cultura environment they worked in But still it's a good way to become familiar with the time and place The Weimar Republic was one of the most fascinating places in the world in the 1920s A place of great creativity and innovation social experimentation and liberation but also the credle of so many ideologies that would soon bring about a horrible war It's a time to explore because we have a lot to learn from it

  6. Jennifer Jennifer says:

    While it's facile to draw comparisons between different periods of history it's also hard not to see the echoes in our own time of events in Weimar Germany social economic and diplomatic upheavals not to mention lots of anger across the political spectrum But while Weitz doesn't shy away from those aspects of the period he also points out the ways in which that turmoil also nourished an artistic flowering And that was a reminder to me that no matter how chaotic things are there's always a place for art of all kinds

  7. Justin Justin says:

    This was a solid history of Weimar Germany It followed a thematic rather than narrative structure so each chapter considered a particular theme often in turn focusing on certain representative individuals within that theme Two conseuences of this is that it felt uite a lot like a textbook and that actually you only need to read the chapters that interest youIn some ways it is easier to consider the book chapter by chapter and so here they areA troubled beginning how the Weimar republic came into existence at the end of World War I uite an interesting chapter from what I recall as the Social Democrats managed to establish a republic that was socialist democratic progressive emancipatory and egalitarianWalking the city here the author takes you on a walking tour of Berlin drawing on contemporary descriptions It’s the most different chapter and is interesting evocative and enjoyablePolitical worlds politics of the Weimar Republic I found this to be the most interesting chapter and I saw some striking parallels with politics to today with the deep divisions and complete lack of consensus in politics ultimately causing the democratic processes and institutions to fail I was also struck by how awful the rightwing was before the Nazi party was even a thing The rightwing DNVP and DVP were rabidly antisemitic and antidemocratic and wanted to destroy the hated Weimar democracy and install an authoritarian regime I can’t believe people actively voted for these partiesA turbulent economy and an anxious society this covered the economy and society I was struck by how much potential the Weimar Republic had It could have been truly amazing and was streets ahead of other western countries in terms of rights and social protections 8 hour working day unemployment benefit theoretical eual opportunities but it never really got a chance to flourish beset as it was by clearly unjust reparations demands hyperinflation in the years up to 1924 and the world economic crisis from 1929; Germany was particularly hard hit by the Wall Street crash due to its reliance on American loans which were called in from late 1929 and thereby bankrupting businesses and perhaps most importantly the government which went into a punishing cycle of austerity Weitz identified three phases of the republic’s history the hyperinflation of 1918 1924 the “golden years” of 1924 1929 and the depression of 1929 1933Building a new Germany this was all about modernist architects eg Bruno Taut and architecture and the principles that drove themSound and image about the new communication technologies particularly microphones and loudspeakers for public speeches radio and particularly film With my interest in cinema I particularly enjoyed the discussion of The Cabinet of Dr Caligari as an example of Expressionist film “The Cabinet of Doctor Caligari” which premiered in 1920 is perhaps typical of German cinema in the early years of the republic Until 1924 Expressionism dominated German cinema as well as German art in general it was born as a response to the trauma of the war The expressionist mode probed the psychology of the protagonists and of the audience They emphasised emotional complexity and the layered levels of consciousness Are dreamworlds real than reality? To whom do we give up our autonomy as individuals? Are we all enmeshed in the nightmarish dreamworld of Dr Caligari? Around 1924 filmmaking moved to the distanced tones of New Objectivity eg “Berlin Symphony of the City” which captures the speed and disorientation of the city with rhythms of movement and sounds Charlie Chaplin and Sergei Eisenstein were both incredibly popular especially “The Gold Rush” and “Battleship Potemkin” respectively among the most popular films of the decade both released 1926 Until 1929 film in Germany was silent There was a democratising aspect to cinema In Berlin alone 400 million cinema tickets were sold in 1924 Film tickets were cheap enough for all but the very poorest to attend yet artistic enough for the upper classes to be interested and choose to share the same space as the working class However there were rightwing critics of the degeneracy of cinema and attempts to control it No surprise that much of German cinema went into exile especially to Hollywood as the republic came to end in 1933A uick but related diversion into writing There was much rightwing criticism of Schund und Schmutz trash and dirt generally Penny novels were incredibly popular mass printed extremely cheap and voraciously consumed particularly by the working classes This caused so much concern in rightwing circles that by 1926 a rightwing government introduced the Law to Protect Youth from Trashy and Filthy Writings Penny novels were sometimes pornographic but commonly exciting detective revolver packing romance and adventure stories Often seen by the right as the product of foreign especially Jewish authors and penny novels were thought to undermine young people’s ability to appreciate traditional German art One critic defined Schund und Schmutz as rooted in “Jewish Manchesterism” blending antisemitism anti capitalism and anti British sentiments A judge railed against the “overstimulation of the imagination” caused by this material among young people There were freuent attacks by the right on “cosmopolitanism” generally which meant JewsCulture and mass society this chapter focused on art literature and theatre Among the subjects of this chapter are Thomas Mann Bertolt Brecht and particularly his revolutionary Threepenny Opera and Hannah Höch with her really interesting photomontagesBodies and sex this chapter looked at how these things were represented in Weimar culture and society including sexual freedom plus the new trend of nudism I felt this chapter could have been much better developed as it was uite short A glaring omission was around sexuality which was a fairly radical development in the republicRevolution and counter revolution from the Right this chapter covered the fall of the Weimar Republic from 1929 to 1933 There is an interesting examination of the language of the right through rightwing figures like Paul Althaus Ernst Jünger and Oswald Spengler which shows that the language made infamous by the Nazis already existed and was widespread before the Nazis came on the scene for instance terms like Third Reich were already an established idea not associated with the Nazis The right were already antidemocratic antisocialist and antisemitic It is also shown that the Weimar Republic had effectively already been destroyed by rightwing authoritarians ruling by presidential decree before Hitler was made chancellor Another striking takeaway was that Nazi rule was not inevitable and it’s so poignant to consider how easily it could have been avoided; never than 373% of the electorate voted for the Nazis in free elections Hitler made two bids for power in 1932 and failed both times and by the election of November 1932 the popularity of the Nazi party was already on the wane If it hadn’t been for rightwing machinations to destroy the republic in January 1933 it seems unlikely the Nazis would have got into power Interestingly if the Communists hadn’t joined the Nazis in a vote of no confidence against Papen the November election the third that year might not have happened A final point of interest was that Brüning and Papen both called elections thinking they could increase their majority and overcome a hung parliament and both elections backfired for themThe Weimar legacy a global perspective this was perhaps the most disappointing chapter and felt a lengthy one to get to the end The first part dealt with political science and philosophy of people like Hans Morgenthau who grew up in Weimar Germany but did most of his work in exile I felt this part dwelt too much on Cold War politics and the link to Weimar Germany often seemed tenuous The second part of the chapter then covered the work that Weimar architects carried on in exile particularly in Los Angeles and Turkey Presented as the final legacy of Weimar this felt really weak I was interested to know how the political ideas of the republic emancipation egalitarianism and social welfare might have left a legacy but this wasn’t dealt withReading this book I was struck by how modern and revolutionary the Weimar Republic was and found it really inspiring It was progressive socialist and democratic with wide freedoms and sparked tremendous creativity It led the way for the world By contrast women did not get eual voting in Britain until 1927 in France until 1945 and the US was deeply anti worker and had racism enshrined in law In Weimar Germany the constitution protected freedom of speech women had eual rights there was a new tolerance for varying sexualities and workers had an impressive safety net provided by the government when it could afford it The creativity of Weimar Germany arguably led the world and benefitted the United States the most when the majority of Germany’s artists and thinkers went into exile in the 1930s I find it incredibly sad and poignant that there were people in Germany who actively wanted this to happen who wanted to stifle this thought and creativity who wanted to remove social protections destroy the democracy remove rights especially those of Jews and return Germany to some nostalgic pre war vision of greatness In a similar way I don’t understand why supporters of Brexit similarly want to diminish Britain and actively remove their rights I was regularly reminded of the parallels With this in mind I was interested to see that Weitz’s book was first published in 2007 and revised in 2013

  8. Miles Kelly Miles Kelly says:

    Weimar Germany still speaks to us are the opening words of this book and the author is firmly of the belief that Weimar Germany was one of the outstanding creative periods and places of the century In Brecht and Weill Thomas Mann Wlater Gropius Martin Heidegger Siegfried Kracauer Fritz Lang the Bauhaus school there was an outburst of endeavour and creativity Some of these people had long creative lives but never was their work as significant or memorable as when they were working in Germany in the 1920's And Weimar is also a warning A warning of what happens when the ideological differences between sectors of society are so deep that no compromise is possible and when a substantial body of opinion has no confidence in the political system That coupled with a severe and unprecedented economic crisis brought the German Republic to a dreadful conclusionEric Weitz's book is a great single volume introduction to Weimar Germany its successes and its failures He covers the art and architecture literature social life economics and bitter politics with brilliant sketches of the principal characters involved and a thorough understanding of the issues

  9. Adam Adam says:

    I had high hopes for this one but I thought this book ran out of steam well before it ran out of words The essential problem I believe is that Weitz sees too much 'promise' in evidence that is heavy on 'tragedy' Accentuating this admirable but problematic reading of the Weimar Republic is the way this book bounces between high politics high culture and everyday life Lots of good political horse trading tales and fantastic intellectual debates here but underplayed here are the pressures on ordinary people and the role they play in determining larger discourses I know this is a trade book and that elouent spokespersons make for better reading but what the little people thought and did mattered greatly in the ultimate collapse of the Republic and the rise of the Nazi party A serviceable introduction to the topic and highly readable but I did not feel it did much to exceed Peter Gay's opus

  10. Adam Glantz Adam Glantz says:

    Really good stuff here from Weitz balancing thematic history with biographical studies He certainly addressed my main uestions What made Weimar Germany distinctive why should we study it and why did it fail? On the first score the Weimar era at least in its urban incarnation was a hothouse for creativity with Berlin matching or exceeding other innovative centers of the globe perhaps even interwar Paris The reason for this is that defeat in a total war a revolution and then extreme economic and political instability gave many people the incentive to throw out all received ideas and authorities and start over from scratch aided by novel technologies like radio and film Of course this didn't include everyone Conservatives dug in their heels and fought back against what they perceived to be a moral disaster often violently In such a contested society just about every conceivable issue was dialed up to 11 in intensity For all its vivacity I wouldn't want to live in Weimar GermanyThe hyper creativity under pressure that was Weimar didn't always lead to pretty outcomes remember its final outcome was Hitler but sometimes it did and that's why it merits serious study Thanks to this era we have the literature of Mann the philosophy of Heidegger the theater of Brecht and Weil Bauhaus buildings and pathbreaking films like the Cabinet of Dr Caligari Metropolis M and The Blue Angel all of which are enjoyed today And the subseuent exodus of refugees trained during Weimar mainly to the United States gave the Cold War its dominant strategic philosophy of realism the 1960s New Left its particular brand of Marxism and Los Angeles its defining architecture The modern world is hard to imagine without the cultural influence of WeimarBut of course the Weimar constitution was ultimately a failure ushering in the worst regime in modern history Weitz is at pains to assert that despite its run of horrendous luck Weimar didn't just collapse it was intentionally destroyed by its powerful enemies on the Right I'm not so sure about that since Weimar statesmen made some egregious mistakes over printing money to the point of hyperinflation then heartlessly deflating the economy during the onset of the Great Depression But the author is right about enemies When it appeared that a communist uprising was imminent the initial Weimar leaders made the fateful decision of allying with unreconstructed conservatives in the military bureaucracy clergy and academia rather than purging them Originally these traditional elitists remained aloof from the new breed of street brawling radical rightists but they both emerged from a common culture and eventually came to an agreement that brought down the republic The lesson is that a democracy cannot long survive when a critical mass of its citizens are trying to destroy it to the point that every issue becomes contested This hits close to home for me in the polarized United States of 2020

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