Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind:

10 thoughts on “Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind: Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for Survival

  1. Mina Soare Mina Soare says:

    This is a book about culture not stereotypes so much as statistical constants As usual I'm going to make my case on why you should read it rather than the Wikipedia summary oh yes there are a few cliffnotes on the author's cultural dimensions Wiki page This book represents several decades of research all around the globe so nothing is passed off as but those are the insert nationality here they're crazy In his worldwide interviews and surveys Hofstede discovered certain dimensions of cultural values that hold true across the sampled cultures and thus provided a basis for understanding if anything the background of the individualThere is a caveat what he sampled Is IBM employees from various countries which represent a particular culture of their own rather than being representative of the culture as a wholeThose dimensions are Power Distance the psychological distance we feel to superiors government boss teacher parents Uncertainty Avoidance or how much a culture dislikes change and prefers rules Masculinity vs Femininity no misogynism here this value reflects competitiveness among others Individualism how much we think of ourselves as a person rather than part of a group family work social network and Long Term Relationships how much we think of the future how much importance we put in building a social network based on trust and strong personal ties He also included Indulgence vs Restraint useful but for reasons unknown the first five are those most often mentionedNow when I say values I don't mean aesthetic values By the author's definition values are the deepest level of social programming Those things have been found slow to change if at all and so far have proven to have a perplexing and strong impact on the simplest of cultural interactions as you can see in the case presented at the beginning of each chapterParadoxically this work on communication is uite dully written The way I see it the fun starts around the middle of Ch 3 so for my selection of interesting ideas check this Wiki section and the reading progress notes All of Part IV Implications should be of interest to most people

  2. Benny Benny says:

    Both practical and theoretical this is the only book that I know of that really describes and explains cultural differences on various levels family school work AND on a or less universal scale While most other books on the matter either remain hopelessly vague or loose themselves in academic abstractions Hofstede really gets down to it In parts the book might be a bit dated but imho Hofstede's cultural dimensions are still essential in understanding cultural diversityIn our globalized world this book should be reuired reading

  3. Cristina Cristina says:

    The book gives you an insight of the cultural differences of nations and explains why behaviorsvaluesheroessymbols have a certain meaning and how they start to evolve from inside the family It is interesting to have a closer look into the power distance or the avoidance uncertainty concepts and understand how they reflect on people's mindsets and how they translate into organization's cultureStill I do believe the book is too long and that the author could have make it a compact readingAs a snapshot I will let you with what the author says it is part of the book's message to have a better understanding of his intentconclusion that I seem to see at correctCultural programming starts in the environment in which a young child grows up usually a family of some kind It continues at school and than at work Workers' behaviors is an extension of behavior acuired at home and at school Managers' behavior is an extension of the managers' school and family experiences as well as a mirror image of the behavior of the managed Politics and the relationships between citizens are an extension of relationships in the family school and at workand in their turn they affect these other spheres of life

  4. Doug Doug says:

    Title may sound dry but if you like me find cultural differences fascinatingannoying you really must read this book or something similar If you have an interest in international business or politics you really should take advantage of this field of study I found Geert Hofstede while trying to research the cultural challenges of the NATO American effort in Afghanistan This is a non judgmental recognition of how different cultures provide for the psychological needs of human nature It addresses relative differences between culture The research originally funded by IBM is a landmark in cross cultural comparison and contrast The graphs and tables provided are very interesting The samples of uestions used to comparecontrast various points of viewvalues are uite good If you have a group of multicultural friends and want some interesting discussion then poor a few beers and make uestions from the tables on uncertainty avoidance or masculinityfemininity descriptors I discovered a great deal of food for thought in this book and left feeling a greater understanding and therefore greater compassion for those who hold different views and values To understand what it means to be human I think it is good to look at how our cultures provide for our basic needs and how varied these cultures are If you have never encountered a different culture from your own then there are some uite concrete examples that you should be able to relate to Should be reuired reading for all educated folks

  5. Adrena Johnson mcdonald Adrena Johnson mcdonald says:

    Trudged Through ItI am currently working on my doctorate in global leadership and I was hoping that this text would be a great resource for my program Though the book contains some very good information and some intriguing insights much of it is a very long recount of the authors' research along with reasons why their research is so good and others' so lacking The last few chapters were interesting but filled with so much opinion and culturally laden should and should not statements that I sometimes felt as if they were ignoring their own message that norms and values are culturally based I do believe that the authors have done some good research but this book did not help me see it in the best light

  6. Angelo John Lewis Angelo John Lewis says:

    I've read a lot of books about cultural differences or diversity but Hofstede's masterwork is just on a different order than the rest It is a research based examination of national and organizational cultural differences across a number of domains such as power distance differences attitudes towards individualism and collectivism gender cultures and several others He then goes on to discuss implications of this research to intercultural and interorganizational encountersThis is a must read for anyone who the hidden programs Hofstede calls these the software of the mind that govern the behavior of cultures

  7. Liam Liam says:

    Regurgitated Weberian sociology but as a text of its descriptors with this one ‘facts adapted to suit theory’ albeit one of an AngloProtestant CalvinistLutheran variety very imperialistcolonialist mindset but dislikes ‘Scandinavian culture’ since after all the ‘transition to a market economy’ after formal independence of the ‘developing world’ was a necessity if powerful money rather than outright seizure of assets and plunder were sanctioned rules of habit But I understand studies like this were made to moralize the late last centuries wealth extraction of poorer ‘developing’ countries one could list the infamous activities that the sponsor and ‘exemplar’ IBM has been involved in; really some of the least ‘objective’ ‘uncertainty avoidant’ feel good schemes for a dumb or cynical section of the manageriallandlord of both houses and land tracts class This also reminds the future anterior audience that the precursors of what we call ‘neoliberalism’ which in the 70s80’s believed the rhetoric of ‘civilizing’ values by creating the new slave wage substratum where many would not even reach the ‘middle income trap’ and ‘hey if they’re not penniless at least they’re not technically poor since they make than the 190 poverty line’ while the ideological positioning here is the neo conservative variant direction or right liberal; whom one could be mistaken for thinking decades ago used to at least admit the grossly uneual early ‘venture capitalism’ as you could call it sometimes privately the line drawn from the first joint imperial stock companies of empire maybe much less common then? whereas today accompanies the liberals by ignoring the uestion whereas the right harangue with ‘anti national’ charges while a from what they say substantial enough section of the left and even socialist left took up the right’s discourse are loath to recall or discuss the after effects of ‘new’ colonialism a reversion to imperial now world spheres after the congress of Vienna and would label this even elementary as ‘PC’ or ‘not our concern’ or whatever tropes one expects to find as a displacement and from what larger issues? So much for the internationalist Western left its as if they only cared for egalitarianism in legalnominal terms only now of ‘class character’ without the specific persons involved who in diversity worldwide are the usually unacknowledged carriers of any revolution before or to come not of one under the rule of the usually Western imperial centres? We find of course the elements product by ‘universal’ marketing the precedent techno utopia of the late 90’searly 00’s extending brand appeal until ‘08 shock with a secondthird military grade detachment of commercial infiltration culture and politics particularly overlapping with a few years ago hence a major push for a ‘new’ techne to perpetuate the illusion that one trades financial security or lifting out of the working poordestitute for the new goods with accompanying major wealth profit extraction stock buybacks that uicken the maturation cycle etc little spending on RD when unprofitable So the text looking from today is a paean for a lost age since there are new models and excuses for the existing order Wryly enough it can be observed this initiatory process of ‘transition to independence’ for others the ‘transition to democracy’ initiated benefits by and large for the rich nationscitizenry by the exploitation of resources where the media apparatus is absent or sardonic to ‘developing’ resistance elsewhere than the ‘home’ countries all while extending delinking capital labour flows with a practice of population control that will sharply exacerbate with further climate onset; a base layer ‘safety’ without prosperity not existent for those outside wealthy capitalist metropoles cities or ‘select’ populationsethnicities entrenched by comprehensive protectionism in legalcommercial areas; the return of ‘great power’ competition spheres of influence becoming accepted by these same scholars Also nonsense such as primarily of the second portion of ‘‘The Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted in 1948 was based on individualist Western values that were and are not shared by the political leaders nor by the populations of the collectivist majority of the world population’’415 notwithstanding the insultingly simplistic binary these ‘developing nations’ who were indebtedexploited for their low wages with speculative profits not reinvested because of the paucity of ‘human rights’ would like them and remunerative working conditions if you asked them which is acknowledged just after but which uestions why the former was posited ''Without losing the benefits of the present declaration which in an imperfect way presents at least a norm used to appeal against gross violations the international community should revise the declaration to include for example the rights of groups and minorities On the basis of such a revised declaration victims of political and religious fundamentalisms can be protected; this protection should prevail over national sovereignty'' followed by the acknowledgement of historical record ''The nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century was the age of Europe; Europeans and their offspring overseas were the “lords of humankind” who colonized most of the outside world while wealth owed from outside to inside'' but cannot seem to see the continuation of the practice so resort to vulgar opinion ''freedom from want became recognized as a fundamental human right and around 1950 programs of development aid were gradually started financed by the rich countries and with the poor ones as receivers Between 1950 and 2000 the euivalent of than a trillion US dollars of public money from the rich countries was spent on the development of the poor ones'' where this ‘development’ was often the privatization of natural resources in conjunction with governmental capture the wealthy often Western countries happy with briberycorruption and hollowing out the rights of workers and rendering legal provisions unenforceable This financed still does and maintains of the lifestyles of ‘home’ citizens and increases investitures of their pension fundsThis selection of the uote ''development assistance money is allocated according to the psychological needs of the donor countries than according to the material needs of the receivers'' then denies the real material benefits wealthier countries obtained with said low wage workforce subcontracted labour industrial capacity environmental extraction and little concern for its standards and offers the ‘enlightened rule’ trope as a new ‘white man’s burden’ the ‘rational with a touch of sentimentalism’ for the ‘benighted natives’ masking in reality brutalizing material gainnaked self interest as the actual pretext This is followed by the statement ''looking back to half a century of development assistance most observers agree who? that the effectiveness of much of the spending has been dismal A number of countries did cross the line from poor to rich especially in East Asia but this progress was due to their populations’ own values and efforts not to the amount of aid money received'' ignores where the manufacturing capabilities are located wealth influx also of China from the fact of their nationalized ‘state private’ resources not immediately stolen by tax havens and the points already made Then the ‘enlightened rule’ trope again ''the development of poor countries is an uphill struggle because population growth often swallows any increase in resources'' that again is not strictly true when ChinaEast Asia is a positive case nor does the author have the authority to impose population reductions in a colonial fashion The frenetic whipsawing text of colonial policy followed by frank admission that isn’t reflected upon policy is again here ''Many development agencies have grown out of the foreign service the main objective of which is the promotion of the donor country’s interests abroad Diplomats lack both the skills and the organizational culture to act as successful entrepreneurs for development consulting activities Development aid money often has political strings attached to it it has to be spent in a way that satisfies the values if not the interests of the donor country citizens and politicians whether or not such values are shared by citizens and politicians at the receiving end Projects funded by international agencies such as the World Bank in theory do not have this constraint but they have to satisfy the agency’s objectives which often also conflict with the receivers’ objectives4 The institutional problem at the receiving end is the most serious for countries in which traditional institutional frameworks did not survive colonization and decolonization Most of these lie in sub Saharan Africa Even when local wars do not destroy the products of peaceful development forces in society make development difficult to attain Without institutional traditions personal interests can prevail unchecked Politicians are out to enrich themselves and their families without being controlled by traditional norms Institutions cannot be created from scratch they are living arrangements rooted in values and history which have to grow The economic success of certain countries of East Asia owes much to the fact that centuries old institutional frameworks existed that were adapted to modern times''417 That ‘institutions’ are invoked with poorly anthropologyethnology and wide claims unrelated to empirical findings or those that are being presented and which the author has no remit for ‘‘companies are replicators’’468 ‘‘polities are replicators at the moral circle level’’ are an attempt at moralizing or ‘explaining away’ the comprehensive ineualities that plague and cut across every society and social strata It ends with ‘‘in recent millennia evolution has pressed toward enlargement of the moral circle but we are not done yet We have no choice but to pursue the direction of expansion of the moral circle to all people in the world’’477 a social darwinist end and arbitrary eschatology moralizing in a menacing manner where the ‘‘moral circle’’ could mean helping the afflicted and exploited persons affected while likely ‘overlooked’ in favour for the opposing ‘side’ that of imperial re entrenchment Cui bono?

  8. Inge Inge says:

    Cultures and Organizations Software of the Mind is considered to be a classic work on cultural differences The author has done ground breaking work using data comparing responses of IBM employees in various countries The data reveals that there are differences between cultures on preferences Interpretation of data is always tricky because correlation doesn't imply causation and even when your explanation of the effect seems plausible to you it doesn't mean it's correct Never trust your own assumptions my professor used to sayHis masculinefeminine dimensions are based on for example the idea that assertiveness is a masculine trait caring for the workplace as a feminine He stresses that both males and females can have these preferences but the way traits are categorised is of course blatantly sexist fitting the stereotypes he probably grew up withHe overreaches when trying to explain where the cultural differences come from often without backing up these claims with proof For example what he does is comparing countries' scores and retrofits that in a narrative High uncertainty avoidance countries display xenophobia Germany scores high their prejudices against people who were different gipsies Jews people of colour and the disabled during WW2 is thus partly explained But it doesn't fit with UK's and USA's eugenics programmes from the same era with the same prejudices In the US there was forced sterilization of people of colour immigrants and the mentally ill Both countries have low scores on uncertainty avoidance He goes out of his way to stress that correlation doesn't imply causation but then gives these examples It doesn't make sense to meHe also does it when giving 'advice' on the overpopulation problem environmental problems and gun regulation in politics This has no direct relation to cultural differences in itself Various cultures perceive these phenomenon differently and offer various solutions according to their own system of thought I think staying with the core message of the book would have been better But then again maybe that's my own bias showing Who knows? Regardless of the at times paternalistic tone I would recommend this book as it is a classic just keep in mind that most of the data is dated from the 70s and 80s and it's written by someone who was born before WW2 with a euro centric Dutch bias I'm curious about a follow up Has this been done? How would modern day employees score on the dimensions in the age of social media and YouTube with traditional old media like newspapers live radio and television on the decline?

  9. Joao Azevedo Joao Azevedo says:

    In times of globalization understanding and accepting cultural diversity and appreciating other people's views about life and how human beings should relate to one another is increasingly important In the late sixties Dr Geert Hofstede became interested in the cultural differences between countries and has researched this subject since then This book presents his work for the general reader It is not an easy book but the interested reader will be able to fully understand the ideas; reading an article about factor analysis in an encyclopedia may help to grasp how the data was interpreted The book itself does not use any mathematical approach; those who want to check the numbers should refer to another of Dr Hodstede's books named Culture's Conseuences 1980 In summary Dr Hofstede has developed a model that tries to explain the cultural differences between countries and organizations; this model has been refined and improved over decades Based on statistical analysis of a large body of data he suggests that culture may be understood according to six principal components power distance individualism x collectivism masculinity x femininity avoidance of uncertainty long term orientation and indulgence x restraint Each concept is carefully defined and the evaluation method is explained A discussion of what to expect from the relative strength of each dimension is presented; in other words the factors are to some extent predictors of the dominant values and behaviors both individual and institutional of a society I was truly amazed by the accuracy of these predictions at least for the few countries I have lived and worked in I recommend this book to everyone specially for those who deal often with people from other countries and cultures

  10. Willis Willis says:

    This took a long time for me to get through because it is packed with information It is a fascinating study into culture and what that word really means There is a large discussion of different elements that distinguish different cultures based on survey data They show how countries differ from each other in terms of these elements which I thought was uite interesting to think about how someone from Japan or China might have a different idea of how to approach a particular situation compared to my American ideas of culture There's a lot of detail and statistical analysis of all of this survey data to explain the differences I think this could have been concisely explained The last part of the book talks about the implications of these differences in culture and what it means in terms of business relations and governmental policies towards other countries that have different cultures It concludes with a discussion of how culture evolves over time which at times seemed to turn into a rant against overpopulation of the earth and religious dogmasThe topic is absolutely fascinating and one not covered much elsewhere so I really enjoyed the 500 pages or so of the book but it just took me a long time to get through it because of the organization of the book and the academic style of writing

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Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind: Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for Survival ✅ [PDF / Epub] ☉ Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind: Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for Survival By Geert Hofstede ⚣ – InhaltWie unsere Herkunft das Denken Fühlen und Handeln beeinflusstBrandaktuell in Zeiten großer Migrationsbewegungen erhält der Leser auf gut verständliche und anregende Weise Einsichten darüber InhaltWie unsere Herkunft Organizations: Software PDF/EPUB ã das Denken Fühlen und Handeln beeinflusstBrandaktuell in Zeiten großer Migrationsbewegungen erhält der Leser auf gut verständliche und anregende Weise Einsichten darüber wie der Ort an dem wir aufgewachsen sind unsere Art zu denken zu fühlen und zu handeln formtBasierend auf Hofstedes Forschungsarbeiten in mittlerweile mehr als siebzig Ländern über einen Zeitraum von vierzig Jahren hinweg untersucht Lokales Denken globales Handeln was Leute trennt obgleich doch Kooperation so klar in jedermanns Interesse wäre Diese komplett überarbeitete Neuauflage enthält wesentliche Beiträge aus Michael Minkovs Datenanalyse des World Value Surveys und Cultures and PDF or zur Evolution von Kulturen von Gert Jan HofstedeZielgruppeFührungskräfte mit Auslandskontakten Führungskräfte im Marketing und Personalmanagement Dozenten und Studierende in betriebswirtschaftlichen Studiengängen.

  • Kindle Edition
  • 576 pages
  • Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind: Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for Survival
  • Geert Hofstede
  • 06 October 2016